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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

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Males       Females
Urban areas population 100,000 or more           101              98
Urban areas population 50,000-99,999                91              90
Urban areas population under 50,000                104            105
Rural areas                                                       91              98
As can be seen from the table, no regular increase in mortality ratios occurs for either sex with increasing population density. In fact, the largest cities have somewhat lower death rates than do the smallest cities, and rural areas have the same, if not lower, rates than cities with populations of 50,000 to 99,999.
TABLE 2
Urban-Rural Differences in Health Status, United States, 1959-1961: Incidence and Mortality Rates per 1,000,000 Population
Selected Diseases,	Incidence		Mortality	
Children Age	Metropolitan	Nonmetropolitan	Metropolitan	Nonmetropolitan
5-14 Years	Counties	Counties	Counties	Counties
Typhoid Fever	3.3	7.0	0.1	0.1
Diphtheria	3.2	7.1	0.2	0.6
Pertussis	111.1	141.1	0.4	1.6
Scarlet Fever and				
Streptococcal				
Sore Throat	1,579	2,374	0.5	1.1
Influenza	n.a.	n.a.	13.5	41.9
n.a. = not available.				
Source: (11).				
The Rise in Death Rates Following Industrialization and Urbanization
Tuberculosis has been used as an example par excellence of a disease that showed a marked increase in rates following industrialization and the accompanying crowding. What is not so well recognized, however, is that in all countries for which data are available, tuberculosis rates rose for 75 to 100 years following industrialization, then started to fall spontaneously, and have continued to fall in the face of ever increasing population density. Improvements in medical care and antituberculosis programs cannot account for this reversal in trends, at least during the initial phase. For example, the diminishing rates in Britain and the United States started in 1850 and 1900 respec-
would be the expected death rate for that population with its age distribution if place of residence had no effect.er parts of the world tend to confirm this seeming paradox. DuBos (8), for example, reports that despite the fact that Hong Kong and Holland are among the most crowded areas in the world, they enjoy one of the highest levels of physical and mental health in the world. Even more convincing is the data from Britain, where in 1961 the age-standardized mortality ratios for all causes of death were as follows:* (9)